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Blauhut B., Indications for prothrombin complex concentrates in massive transfusions. Thrombosis Research. 95(4 Suppl 1):S63-9, 1999.
A major hemorrhagic insult may require massive transfusions to maintain oxygen transport and hemostasis. Thus an adequate transfusion budget must consider losses, patient's blood volume, critical levels of laboratory parameters, replacement rates of coagulation factors from the extravascular space, and the efficacy of blood products. The substitution of large quantities of blood or red cell concentrates can induce and aggravate a complex haemostatic disorder. Some patients develop generalized microvascular bleeding. A transfusion regimen is described, which in our hands can reduce complications of massive transfusion. For hemostatic support, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma are the treatment of choice. Localization and persistence of bleeding, hepatic disease, and vitamin K deficiency due to medication or intestinal malabsorption may require the supplementary use of prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, antithrombin and fibrinogen concentrates may be indispensable.

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